Switzerland will amend the legislation to regulate kriptonyte

The Swiss government has no plans to create a separate legal framework for regulating the blockchain and kriptonyte, reports Cointelegraph.

As stated by the Minister of Finance of Switzerland Ueli Maurer, for the regulation of new technologies, the authorities intend to alter the current legislation.

He added that in 2019 the government will amend six pieces of legislation in the civil code and bankruptcy law.

Ueli Maurer also drew attention to the fact that between countries there is a fierce competition in the field of FINTECH-technology. According to him, UK has already surpassed in this matter Singapore and Shanghai.

We will remind, earlier in December, the Swiss service for supervision of financial markets (FINMA) announced that c 2019 cryptocurrency startups will be able to accept deposits up to $100 million.

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China has established a pilot area for research in the field of blockchain

The first pilot area in China to study the use of blockchain technology is open in Hainan province in the South of the country, reported state news Agency Xinhua.

The area is located in the high-tech Park, Hainan Resort Software Community (RSC) and includes several projects, including the Institute for blockchain studies and innovation center.

Research Institute is a joint project between the RSC and University College Oxford Blockchain, University of Oxford (UK) and has already begun its work. The innovation centre will be established RSC, in partnership with the Chinese people’s University (Beijing).

The head of the Department of industry and information technology of Hainan province Wang Jing (Wang Jing) said:

“The pilot zone will take on the commitment to attract blockchain talents from around the world and the study of the use of technology in such areas as international trade, global Finance and credit rating”.

The official added that the pilot zone would deepen cooperation with leading research institutions around the world and key players in the blockchain industry.

Recall that in may Chinese President XI Jinping (Xi Jinping) called the blockchain breakthrough technology, first publicly recognizing its potential. The development of new industry podderzhivaetsya not only Central authorities, but also at the municipal level — for example, the innovation funds to Finance the blockchain projects created in Shenzhen ($80 million), Hangzhou ($1.6 billion) and
Nanjing ($1.48 billion).

In August, the Ministry of industry and information technology of China stated that despite the fact that the new technology is widely used in the financial sector, logistics and intelligent manufacturing, blockchain-industry in the country is in its infancy.

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CBR: 90% of transactions with cryptocurrencies is due to fraud

The first Deputy Chairman of the Bank of Russia Olga Skorobogatova called cryptocurrency risky assets and stressed that 90% of transactions involve fraud. She stated in a speech at the St. Petersburg economic forum (SPIEF-2018).

“If we talk about the crypt, is a high-risk tool…it’s no secret that 90% of transactions are associated with fraudulent transactions. This does not mean that they should be banned. This means that now there are more questions than answers,” said Olga Skorobogatova.

She noted that in 2018 the investments in the development of the blockchain has grown in 2,2 times and amounted to $2.3 billion, 36% of this amount was accounted for by the financial sector. The first Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation does not consider these investments “fantastically large”. Besides, she said, “only 10% of organizations believe will have a real effect in the case of the application of this technology.”

In the beginning of the year Olga Skorobogatova, commenting on the development of the transmission system based on the blockchain for financial reports by Central banks of the countries participating in the EEU, he said that technology raises many questions:

“Despite the fact that a lot of States, what a wonderful and almost perfect technology, the blockchain, in fact she has a lot of questions, it does not solve is the question of performance, load, security and so forth.”

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South Korean police have arrested 14 miners

In South Korea arrested 14 employees of 13 companies for illegal use of cheap electricity for the purpose of mining cryptocurrency.

Illegal mining was carried out in four different industrial complexes in the city of Gwangju, located in the South-West of the country. Six companies rented space in an industrial complex of Khans, six industrial complexes, Nano and London, and one in the industrial complex Jinhak.

The company, established these sets of mining hardware, pay for electricity, 10% less compared to the companies, the buildings which are located in ordinary areas. In addition, industrial estates rents slightly lower than in the whole country.

Each of these companies have installed in their premises about 100-350 devices for mining, which was carried out by them in may 2017.

We will remind, Inhabitants of South Korea have started to actively buy the processors with high-performance graphics cards such as Nvidia GTX 1080 ti, for mining of minor cryptocurrencies traded on local exchanges.

Korean manufacturers of computer equipment, in turn, began to release a CPU designed specifically for mining. Recently, the company Jooyeon Technology has introduced the Guard Hash processor with four Nvidia GTX 1080 ti, equipped with radial fan with a vaporization chamber to prevent overheating of the CPU.

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Vice-President of the EC: the blockchain out of the lab and into the mainstream

Vice-President of the European Commission (EC) has called on the EU to commit themselves in the development of blockchain technology, which, according to him, steps out of the lab and into the mainstream.

In his speech at Digital Day 2018 in Brussels Andrus Ansip (Andrus Ansip) pointed to the blockchain, as one of the priorities for the EU. He stressed that the technology of the blockchain is among the “areas where Europe plays the leading role” along with an artificial intelligence (AI).

“I would like to see the EU take similar commitments [as AI] regarding blockchain technology, which is now out of the laboratories and into the mainstream. As with AI, we should use this opportunity for innovation,” said an official of the European Commission.

Ansip mentioned the EU investments in the blockchain, artificial intelligence, digital health care, other areas of digitalization of the economy and made clear that this funding, in his opinion, is not enough. “We need money,” he said.

“Digital single market creates the right conditions and infrastructure for functional digital Europe. But none of this comes for free,” said the Vice-President of the EC.

We will remind that last autumn, the European Commission said that in the framework of Horizon 2020 will invest €30 billion in innovation, including the blockchain. Also, the EC has launched a study designed to assess the technical feasibility and potential of the blockchain infrastructure of the EU as a whole.

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Disney blockchain project Dragonchain attracted more than $13 million in result ICO

Blockchain project Dragonchain attracted more than $13 million on the result of the ICO. As reported on the website of the project, all 238.421.940 token called «dragon» (all drgn) were successfully implemented in exchange for bitcoins and esters, providing project 622,51 BTC and 30.521,85 ETH.

Dragonchain simplifies the integration of real-world business applications on the blockchain, and provides features such as easy integration, protection of business data and operations, agnosticism in the currency and multiple currency support. The company also provides professional services for the development and successful ecosystem tokenization with long-term value of using the model of incubation.

Joe Roets (Joe Roets), founder and CEO of Dragonchain, Inc explains the name of this blockchain-Protocol:

«We all know how jealous dragons guarding their treasures, this name emphasizes the main features of the Dragonchain – high security commercial data.»

Recall that ICO Dragonchain was launched on 2 October and lasted exactly a month. Now, according to the road map project, to the holders of tokens remains to wait a few months before the official launch blockchain platform in commercial use, which is scheduled for March 2018.

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RBC: of the 100 largest ICO projects working product is only at 16

RBC magazine has analyzed the 100 largest ICO in the amount of borrowed funds, which attracted a total of about $2.7 billion. the Results showed that only 16 of them have at least a partially working product or service. While the vast majority of projects it is not.

According to the figures, the most attractive factor for investors is the blockchain. For projects related to the infrastructure of the blockchain (new baccani, creation and transformation of tokens, the interactions between the various blockchains, blockchains and the outside world) accounted for nearly a third of all attracted by the top 100 projects funds. The second place in terms of funds raised and first in the number of projects financial sector: cryptocurrency cards, wallets, banks, etc.

According to estimates RBC, 49% of all money raised of the top 100 largest ICO, gathered the first dozen projects. 19 projects out of 100 was founded by Russian-speaking people (including projects from the USA, Canada and Australia).

In 2016, the global market for ICO amounted to $103 million (disregarding canceled krausel project DAO). The venture capital investment market in the same year amounted to $127 billion.

According to CoinDesk, in the first quarter of 2017 startups worldwide attracted through ICO $36 million, the second – a record $797 million of the investments received from venture capital funds, totaled $107 million and $235 million respectively.

According to the ICO tracker CoinDesk, for the period from July 2014 has received $2.67 billion through ICO.

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The miners migrate to the North: how external factors influence the choice of habitat of the miners digital treasures

Recently, the miners are actively trying to find a way to minimize the cost of production of digital gold. One such way is to move mynarski farms to countries where energy costs are minimal.

The fact is that for mining you need large energy consumption, produces a lot of heat. Many of the miners even began to compete in the contest of ideas of the non-trivial ways to use the released resource. For example, in Irkutsk, the miners proposed to heat the house or sauna.

Meanwhile, mining is a vital process in order for the blockchain remained decentralized and protected. First and foremost, this requires computing power and a large amount of electricity, the price of which in most countries is not small.

So, according to some analysts, the energy consumption of producing one bitcoin can vary in the corridor from $531 (Venezuela) to $26,170 (South Korea). According to estimates Digiconimist, by the end of 2018, the bitcoin miners will consume over 125 TWh, which is a huge amount of power.

Despite this, many crypto-entrepreneurs still consider mining as an option profit. But if in the past it did look like a successful company, but recently the miners of crypts has become much more difficult to maintain the profitability of its activities, given the current total stock bearish trend.

Where the grass is greener

The General trend is that crypto currency miners, whether small or large, are moving to areas where production costs are significantly less. In addition, the relocation of mining companies in the country, using alternative energy sources, reduces damage to the environment from such a large expenditure of resources.

Before China, because of the extremely low electricity costs, was a mining Mecca — a place which tried to get the biggest mining community. However, in the beginning of this year, China began to deal with cryptocurrency mining, which large farm, situated in China, began to leave in search of a better life.

Now miners seeking to the North in Sweden, Iceland and Norway. Prices on the consumption of KWh in these countries is 30% below the European average.

One of the largest farms, Bitfury recently announced its plans to open a company in Norway. The company plans to invest more than $35 million, and also intends to hire locals to run the facility. Norway not only has a stable and affordable price for electricity, but the government, which is not going to regulate crypto-space.

Canada — a new Paradise for miners?

Another Northern country, Canada, has established itself as attractive to the miners location. In some parts of Canada, electricity costs can be as low as 5-6 cents per kWh. The reason for such a low cost of electricity due to the fact that Canada uses a cheap and relatively uninterrupted working of hydroelectric power.

North American mining giant, Hyperblock, recently announced the acquisition of CryptoGlobal, based in Canada. In the end Hyperblock will have a huge enterprise working for 4-5 cents KWh. the Seemingly small difference of a few cents between electricity prices in the Nordic countries and Canada eventually pours into the millions.

Nevertheless, production in Canada has also a reverse side of the coin, attempts to regulate the crypto-space by the canadian government. When choosing between the North American and Scandinavian Meck miners literally have to choose between two evils, carefully counting the costs.

In General, the miners are demonstrating the absolute and unprincipled willingness to move through the world in search of the greatest possible benefit. Political system, weather conditions and climate also influence the choice of the location. The most important thing is profitability.

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«Mr. Bitcoin» Martin Wismeijer store bitcoins under the skin — #DeCenterDaily

Samsung plans to reduce the cost of logistics using the blockchain.

Weekly trading volume of bitcoin in Venezuela has reached $55 million.

According to the website Coin Dance, by 14 April, the trading volume of bitcoin in a pair of the Venezuelan Bolivar on the Localbitcoins exchange rose to a record high of 2.7 trillion bolivars ($55 million) for the week. And a week earlier the figure was $35 million, and in the last week of March — $18 million. As reported by Reuters in March the inflation rate in Venezuela decreased by 13% in comparison with indicators of February from 80% to 67%. Although economic forecasts remain unfavourable, Venezuela last week and agreed on a national cryptocurrency: after a long confrontation, the Parliament has recognized Petro, approving a draft decree, which aims to establish a legal basis for the use of crypto-assets. According to the decree, the right to «regulate the production, organization and turnover of Petro» belongs to Nicolas Maduro. And on 9 April the government Official Gazette was told that all state institutions — from the ministries to the airports — are required to take Petro on the rights of legal tender. The introduction of the relevant infrastructure organizations dedicated 120 days.

Acne Buterin seriously proposes to limit emissions of the ether, the developers are against.

The rate of generation of new coins in Ethereum is growing, and April fool «comic» offer Buterin on limiting emission has triggered a fierce debate between developers. Citing the need for «economic stability», Buterin urged to stop issuing new coins when issue will reach 120 million of air (which is exactly two times more than was released during the initial pre-sale in 2014). In his opinion, this will provide favorable conditions for cryptocurrency in the long term. Last week, during the meeting, the developers, the Creator of the air to justify its position, after which a leading developer of proof-of-stake Protocol Ethereum Vlad Zamfir has published a post on Medium called «Vitalik Against the proposal to limit the emission of (EIP 960)». «I don’t think we have the necessary information to understand what we agree,» said Zamfir. «The numbers seem completely arbitrary,» wrote one of the participants of the discussion on Reddit. Many developers United around the idea that economic gain was not the purpose of the creation of Ethereum: «the Main purpose of the air under the Protocol is to serve as a resource consumed by the computing machine for calculation,» wrote the independent developer of Ethereum Darryl Morris. In his opinion, the use of ether as an investment tool should not be a priority. This view is shared by developer Nick Johnson, who said that the discussion turned into a «group of people arguing about pseudo-economy like Ethereum was created primarily as an economic model, not as computing system». Zamfir also fears that limit emissions of air can empower speculators and large investors. «I don’t know what the emissions required to achieve consensus, although sure that the current volume is not also the best… Almost every new altcon now shown in a limited number of coins,» said Zamfir.

Exchange Binance burned tokens Binance Coin.

«According to the white paper, we have completed burning 2,220,314 BNB ($30 million) for the third quarter,» said the exchange on the official website last Sunday. In the middle of last week, it reminded the users about the event: «long before quarterly redemption and burning token BNB. How much do you think BNB will be burned in the quarter?» — posted the exchange on Twitter. The process for the internal token Binance really traditional and are described in the white paper of the project: «Each quarter we use 20% of our profit on redemption of BNB and their destruction. This will happen as long as we don’t pay for 50% of all tokens BNB (100 million)». Binance Coin is a token of the standard ERC-20 and has a limited issue of 200 million coins, representing deflationary by its nature, cryptocurrency — that is, its rate should increase. The token provides reduced fees on the platform Binance: now the holders of BNB have a discount of 50%, but in the future it will decrease. Previous burning of coins took place in October 2017 and January 2018, when it was destroyed 986,000 1,821,586 BNB and BNB respectively. These «procedures» have reduced emissions to 194,972,068 BNB, and in circulation at the moment is 114,041,290 BNB. Cryptocurrency has reacted to the recent burning of a decrease of 11%, down for the night from $13.57 to $12.11.

«Mr. Bitcoin» Martin Wismeijer store bitcoins under the skin.

Dutchman Martin Wiesmeier in 2010, he lost 80% of their bitcoin savings as a result of breaking the wallet. Now it stores the private keys on the implanted in the hands of NFC chips, each with a capacity of 888 bytes, or 26 keys. Implants were introduced in the Studio of piercing and composed of glass chips the size of 2×12 mm. According to Wismeijer, he pays with chips every day: it is necessary to scan the chip with their smartphone, which will receive the key to decrypt it. «If in 2010 I had a chip then I would be a very rich man,» said Martin. However, it is also controversial, said that for security reasons — that the chip does not come off along with a hand — he keeps it only a small amount of cryptocurrency required to purchase beer or coffee.

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Sweet November SEC

In October Yahoo Finance and Decrypt the Media published a joint report which says that the Commission on securities and stock exchanges of the USA (SEC) has tightened the prosecution ICO, putting at risk, «hundreds» of projects. Thus, according to the document, dozens of companies are «quietly agreed» to return the investor’s funds and pay the penalties instead of trying to reach agreement with regulatory requirements. Yahoo and Decrypto noted that the crypto-space, there is still no regulatory clarity and the Commission «is not going to provide it». November 16, the SEC issued a statement about the digital assets is one of the few such documents since the time of the report DAO — but experts doubt that he will clarify the situation and make life easier for players in the crypto-sphere. What’s the mood with the SEC and with what projects the Commission figured out in November, tells DeCenter.

AirFox and Paragon

November 16, the SEC issued a decree on the results of the investigation in respect of projects AirFox and Paragon. The Board found that the company was selling unregistered securities. Now they are required to register the tokens in accordance with the law, pay a fine of $250,000 and meet the requirements for reimbursement of investor funds if any.

The financial services company Airfox and blockchain startups in the marijuana industry, Paragon spent tocancel last year. Airfox has raised $15 million for the creation of a mobile application that will allow users to monetize clicks on the ads and Paragon to develop their own platform, raised $12 million.

The company agreed to pay fines to register their tokens as securities and make periodic reports to the SEC and to return any funds to the affected investors.

SEC declares that encourages technological innovation on the capital market, but simultaneously emphasizes that «market participants must adhere to well-established and well-functioning legal boundaries, working in the field of technological innovation, regardless of, securities are issued in certificated form or using new technologies such as the blockchain». «We’re clear that companies that issue securities through the ICO must comply with laws and regulations and rules governing registration of securities. These cases show those who wanted to do something like that, that we continue to monitor the violations of the Federal securities laws in respect of digital assets,» commented Stephanie Avakian, one of the leaders of the Department of law enforcement SEC.

Global context. The end of «first phase»

This is the first case of application of measures grazhdansko-legal responsibility in respect of the ICO projects from the SEC, and some experts consider it an important milestone in the history of crypto-regulation.

«What we see is a simple development of what was supposed to happen. Regulators always interfering… Coming global tough measures, — says David silver, a lawyer in the area of securities fraud and investment losses. The government was not going to be afraid of groups of libertarians and anarchists. In the next two years we will see more than just enforcement actions.»

However important or even turning date 16 November was not the only reason. On the same day, the SEC summed up its current position on the activities of crypto-projects in the «Statement of issue and trade digital securities.» «Today marks the end of what I would call the «first part» law enforcement strategy of the SEC, commented on the emergence of this guide, Jake Chervinsky, counselor of the state service for trials in the field of securities. This is the first [statement SEC] since the speech of the Villa Hinman, who said that bitcoin and ether are not securities because they are “fairly decentralized”. It covers all recent SEC actions against industry players: ICO, exchanges, brokers, funds. And that’s why I call it the end of the first phase. It seems that SEC has prepared this statement for almost a year. They are strategically pursued several of the members of each group to make this statement as a guide for the rest.»

Czerwinski believes that the SEC uses the «classic strategy, known as «leadership through coercion, which leaves the regulator for freedom of action. About the same strategies the SEC wrote mark santori, a lawyer and the author of the concept of SAFT, in December last year, when the SEC announced its decision in the case of Munchee: «We will see more [cases] of leadership through coercion by the SEC. Fortunately, the Commission continues to act rationally and to consider these as «teachable moments» for these [projects] as Munchee, which in fact are not criminals».

Czerwinski notes that the Commission acts in the interests of reputation that might be good for her but bad for crypto projects that need clarity and clear legal framework: «SEC rarely wants to test uncertain legal theories in court. If they lost a big case, such as whether the tokens of securities is to undermine their law enforcement strategy for the entire industry. [A] the best way to avoid this? Leave the rules vague and ambiguous». For this reason, according to Chervinski, the latest statement by the SEC still does not explain clearly enough how the securities law should apply to digital assets «In the statement of the question is: «When the digital asset is a security?». The only answer there is: «See report for DAO», despite the fact that it was released about 16 months ago.»

«Even less help» this statement makes the issue of decentralized exchanges — whether they are subject to Federal regulation, said Czerwinski. «It says that it depends on «relevant facts and circumstances.» In legal language this is equivalent to «[we] are not sure, don’t touch us»». «A business that provides a marketplace that unites buyers and sellers of securities, regardless of the technology used, must determine whether its activities under the definition of exchange under the Federal securities act. In rule 3b-16 of the act the exchanges of the given functional test to assess [this]», — it is told in statement SEC. In fact, it is the analogue of the Howey test to stock exchanges, and it is likely that the criteria will cause the crypto-projects less than criteria of the Howey test.

Another question which is set Czerwinski and which, in his opinion, explained in a Declaration how far the sphere of influence of the SEC. «Many companies react to regulatory uncertainty in the US, trying to get out of the reach of the SEC. But whether the SEC will hunt for the ICO and foreign exchanges that do not allow participation of American citizens? «[We] don’t know [do not touch]»,» — commented cerwinske.

In this case, as previously, the SEC remains open to direct appeals from the specific projects: «Consult your legal advisers regarding application of securities laws and to contact the Commission staff if you require assistance,» the statement said. «The path to regulatory compliance is, even when issuers have conducted illegal unregistered offer digital securities,» — this phrase from the statement of the SEC gives even more hope, pointing out that the SEC is ready to understand the projects that may not because of criminal intent, but because of the ambiguity of the regulations, incorrectly interpreted the character tokens sold and agree to pay a fine and continue to cooperate with the SEC.

Czerwinski notes that coming now to the second phase of regulation will be likely even more difficult for the crypto-space: «If I’m right, «phase two» not fun — it [is] a slow, painful grinding, in which the SEC cleans the crypto space every decision. In a sense, this is the right approach. To establish laws is not really the work of the SEC — the clarity must come from Congress. And if you’re tired of hearing on regulation and enforcement, I regret to inform you that this is only the beginning. The securities laws is only one part of a crypto-puzzle. We will go through this again with the tax laws, about money laundering, about the [bypass] sanctions and so on. I’m sorry.» Thus, in his opinion, the regulation in the second phase to actively connect the other departments, in particular the Commission commodity futures U.S. (CFTC) and IRS (IRS).

November SEC: chronology

If you believe the «theory phase» Chervinsky, the completion of the first phase of crypto-regulation are the following events:

In early November, the Enforcement Department of the SEC has published the annual report for the 2018 fiscal year, which shows that since the formation of Kiberprestuplenie inside SEC (at the end of the 2017 fiscal year), the Commission is increasingly engaged in the identification of fraudulent activity in cyberspace, which includes the activities of ICO projects. «Over the past year the Department has opened dozens of investigations into ICO and digital assets, many of which [proceedings] are continuing». The SEC highlighted cases Centra Tech, Titanium Blockchain Infrastructure Services and PlexCorps, which together got tricked more than $68 million of investor funds. According to the SEC report, the total amount of fines imposed by the Commission for the 2018 fiscal year amounted to $3.94 billion, of which $3.04 billion and accounted for 5% of the cases.

November 8, the SEC charged the Zachariah Coburn, founder of the exchange EtherDelta, which was not registered as a trading platform. The platform allowed the exchange of tokens of the standard ERC20, and, according to the SEC, within 18 months of its existence the exchange was located more than 3.6 million warrants of tokens, including those that were securities. The statement also draws attention to the fact that most of the orders were made after the Commission has published a report investigating the DAO in June 2017. The regulator said that the founder of the exchange, Coburn has not confirmed nor denied the charges but agreed to cooperate and pass the state $300,000 of illegal profits and to pay a fine in the amount of $75,000 and $13,000 as interest for the period before judgment. The SEC notes that the penalty would be greater if Coburn refused to cooperate.

On 15 November The Wall Street Journal reported that the SEC is investigating a $50 million tocancel the company crypto-loans Salt Lending Holdings Inc. «Sources familiar with the situation» said that the company received a summons in February. She was suspected of selling unregistered securities and the Commission finds, as was used collected in the course of licensee means and in what form the Salt staff received tokens. The trial for the SEC and the CEO platform ShapeShift Eric Voorhis, who previously was a member of the Board of Directors of the Salt despite the fact that in 2014 the SEC banned him from any fundraising activity. Will Voorhies to cooperate with the investigation, is unclear, but his previous statements say not that good. «All these stories about what the government is trying to protect people — a complete nonsense,» the businessman said during a summer interview with The Wall Street Journal.

On 15 November, Federal prosecutors in new York announced that Maxim Zaslavsky, founder of ICO projects REcoin Group Foundation and Diamond Reserve Club World, suspected fraud and deception of investors, pleaded guilty to «[engage] investors in the purchase of tokens through fraud in the form of statements about what they are backed by real estate and diamonds». In fact, the certificate that he sent to investors, were not associated with bloccano, and any supporting assets did not exist.

Recall that the case of the Zaslavsky became the first SEC about ICO fraud. The Commission has charged a businessman at the end of September 2017, and demanded the return of collected during the ICO funds and to pay a fine.

Zaslavsky previously insisted that existing laws against cryptocurrencies «unconstitutionally vague» and tried to dismiss the charges against him, claiming that he created crypto-currencies were not securities. However, this argument was rejected by a Federal judge in Brooklyn in September. Judge Raymond Deary decided that RECoin and Diamond are securities. «A deliberate lie Zaslavsky and others led unsuspecting investors to buy worthless certificates [while they] thought that they acquire cryptocurrency securities. This office will continue to aggressively pursue those who use and deceive investors, whether in the form of traditional methods of fraud with securities or new — such as the alleged proposals of cryptocurrencies and blockchain-technologies», — said the lawyer court southern district of new York Richard Donohue.

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