The blockchain industry is not confined to one technology of distributed registry, many companies tend to use different innovations. Perhaps one of the most puzzling development is a quantum blockchain. The launch of the first network, the quantum is built on a distributed registry, in the spring of 2017 announced the team of the Russian quantum center. The community is also known for the concept of the «quantum threat» against the blockchain. It means that when you build a quantum computer of some power he can instantly decipher the algorithms, blockchain-based networks such as Bitcoin.
How realistic is this threat and how the blockchain-industry can benefit from implementation of the standards of quantum mechanics, DeCenter asked Yaroslav Lunev, General Director of the project, CellFrame aimed at developing a blockchain Protocol, with «post-quantum» encryption.
General Director of the project Cellframe
I must say that I am totally not the person to answer this question, because I’m not a physicist, and an Amateur, so I will try to make it interesting and «not wrong».
A conventional computer operates with the concept of bits in the binary system as an atomic piece of information having only two possible values — one or zero. A quantum computer is based on «qubits», which, being in a superposition can have more values and thus be more effective.
To make it more clearly, you can bring one layman’s analogy, which is not an accurate description, but allows you to experience the difference between classical computer and quantum. We have a phone book with a list of names and phone numbers, each name consists of 10 letters and each number consists of 6 digits. Thus, the database of 1 million values (rows) will require 15.26 MB (128 million bits) to store it on a PC, while on the quantum we have a total of 16 qubit.
Yes, it is technically incorrect to say «keep», «hold» operation, but this example need to understand the difference of orders of magnitude. In a nutshell, it can increase the attainable amount of computation.
For example, imagine that we have a computer model of the human body, where each cell or even each molecule behaves the same as in life. We could simulate a bunch of things: the behavior of the molecules of new drugs with individual molecules of the organism, the nuclear reaction for the construction of new generation reactors, phase transitions in gaseous media, plasma physics and so on.
Another example, closer to triptanov, quantum threat, that is, a quantum computer can crack the bitcoin blockchain, for example. Traditional computers may very well multiply the numbers, but do not cope with the factorization. By «bad» means that this problem is solved by brute force, but it is not very efficient. This is based on the cryptography, you can still remember about PoW mining. Thus, for a very long time, a very powerful computer could theoretically crack the signature in the blockchain.
«Very long and very powerful» — is, of course, depends on the power of the computer, but still it’s billions of trillions of years. Although I could be wrong by several million orders of magnitude, but that doesn’t matter. You have to understand that this breaking is impossible.
But a quantum computer for a few thousand qubit can do it. Moreover, he doesn’t have time for this, then there is no talk of the order «he can do it in sextillion times faster», it’s like 1 or 0 — it happened at the time or not.
In General, it is important just to understand the approximate nature of a subject, and forecasts — a thing ungrateful.
My opinion here is worth nothing, I don’t work on the quantum computer. 10-15 years? Probably, Yes. Although, maybe not. It doesn’t matter. Just when quantum supremacy will be a constant, quantum resistant encryption should be standard, and standards are not created in one year.
There is a caveat, he concludes that this is the first commercial quantum computer by 20 cubits. That is, it is a stable system for 20 the qubit, which can be sold and operate.
From the point of view of the market, must be important. From the point of view of the things we talked about, to be afraid of before, such a system 20 the qubit can be emulated today on a home computer, the only question is how much you have RAM.
Here I really is better to remain silent. For comments it is better to contact the Russian Quantum Center.
At this point should finally tell you about our project. Our Protocol of post-quantum and non-quantum. This means that it can be applied after a quantum computer will be created. While quantum blockchain would use the principles of quantum computer. Although you can add that, owing to the flexibility of the system, nothing prevents in the future to add the quantum key exchange in the CellFrame and release on the same ecosystem the real quantum token.
In other words, we create the most effective Protocol using a quantum-resistant encryption. Quantum-resistant signatures themselves are more used now that imposes restrictions in terms of efficiency. So we almost everywhere use clean language «C» to be closer to the metal and make a more efficient product than all of the blockchains.
One more thing: we don’t know which labels or algorithms are in fact quantum-resistant. We can only calculate and guess.
Right now there is a project Post-Quantum Cryptography at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, where very smart people are trying to standardize algorithms and signatures, in a few rounds they check and eliminate the various options.
So we laid in the Protocol, the variability of the encryption, it is possible to change the encryption types on the fly. Now we have implemented 4 different options, but wait for the results of this project and implement all necessary.
This is the difficulty: we can talk only in theory, not yet practice.
We are inclined to think that all our future will be post-quantum. At least «just in case». Therefore the future needed a similar Protocol.
The network is open, but with the ability to create private «shards» and networks. From the point of view of monetization, we can equally well move in the direction of corporate customers, and retail.
If we talk about specific solutions, we’re about to launch a distributed VPN our Protocol. Our solution will eliminate the boundaries in the use of the Internet anywhere on the planet, regardless of DPI, the national firewall. In addition, we use post-quantum encryption and the bandwidth limit of the Protocol — the capacity of the iron.
The roots of our team are drawn from Akademgorodok of Novosibirsk. From there myself. Dima Gerasimov, our technical Director, and the author of architecture of the last 10 years of experience in network security, has launched several commercial VPN systems. Eugene Grishakov is our operating officer, he has extensive experience in building business systems.
We all have experience with bloccano, each of us participated in several projects. In addition, probably need no introduction Basil Tumanov and Dmitry Chirkin, they are also members of the team. We also have several international advisers.
We have a private investor and own funds, these funds and implement the project. It is incorrect to say that the urgency of development depends on the appearance of a quantum computer.
The prospect of our development in its architecture that most effectively uses resources of the computer system and can be used at any level — from mainframe to smart refrigerators.
When planning we thought about a system that can withstand the flow of hundreds of millions of users daily. I understand that to us it is said a dozen projects, but we can provide something that nobody showed — the system in detail and code.
I tend to believe the RCC. I can’t even reason to imagine that they do not believe.
Most likely. Absolute security of information, especially financial important thing priceless.